Adsorbentes no-convencionales, alternativas sustentables para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

Maria Guadalupe Valladares-Cisneros, Cintya Valerio Cárdenas, Patricia de la Cruz Burelo, Rosa María Melgoza Alemán

Resumen


Se presenta una revisión sobre los adsorbentes no-convencionales utilizados para la remoción de contaminantes en el agua. Se describirán brevemente los adsorbentes convencionales para distinguir a los no-convencionales. Los adsorbentes convencionales son aquellos materiales naturales o sintéticos los cuales, para ser empleados, deben recibir un tratamiento para activarse, como el carbono, las arcillas, las membranas etc.; después de usarse estos materiales tienen la cualidad de poder ser regenerados. Los adsorbentes no-convencionales son materiales alternos (biopolímeros o partes de plantas); no necesariamente deben recibir un tratamiento previo para activarse; sin embargo, su activación mejora su capacidad de adsorción. Las fuentes estudiadas para la obtención de materiales empleados como adsorbentes no-convencionales han sido los residuos agroindustriales y de la industria alimenticia y especies vegetales cuya aplicación es restringida o no tienen aplicación. Han sido diferentes los estudios que demuestran que el empleo de materiales naturales como adsorbentes no-convencionales permite reducir la carga orgánica de un efluente contaminado con metales, colorantes, pesticidas y algunos otros compuestos orgánicos denominados emergentes. Las áreas de estudio para los materiales no-convencionales surgen como una necesidad en el diseño de procesos sustentables para el tratamiento de aguas residuales, por lo que su estudio y revisión son de especial interés para profundizar y proponer alternativas acordes con las necesidades existentes.

Palabras clave


adsorbente convencional; adsorbente no-convencional; aguas residuales; materiales naturales; tratamiento sustentable

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22395/rium.v16n31a3

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