Black Media and Inequality in the Media Structure: Notes on Brazil and USA

Ivonete Da Silva Lopes | Bio
Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Share:

Abstract

The objective of this article is to analyze the articulation between racism, communication policies (to promote or restrict racial diversity), and their reflection in the organization of media systems. This research is focused on Brazil and the United States, countries that have different trajectories in regulating and promoting racial diversity in communication. In the American context, there were explicit laws that restricted African Americans’ access to concessions, however affirmative actions were implemented to introduce greater plurality in the sector. In Brazil, on the other hand, there were no formal limitations, which, however, did not imply a reduction in inequality in the media structure. As a methodology, this investigation adopted a documentary analysis (laws and reports) to map communication policies and the participation of the black media in media systems, and interviews made with black media’s owners. As the main result, this research points out that the affirmative action policies to employ black professionals and promote greater racial diversity in this field are reflected, even today, in a more plural scenario in the USA compared to the Brazilian one. Brazil, with 56 % of the black population, has only 10 news websites and a magazine, while the United States, with 14 % of African Americans in its population, has over 500 black media. However, in the two countries studied, the difficulty of promoting racial diversity in communication is evident, either due to the obstacle of advancing the debate and the creation of these policies, such as the Brazilian case, or due to the setback and discontinuity of the affirmative action policy verified in the States United.

References

  1. Almeida, S.L. (2019). Racismo estrutural. Sueli Carneiro-Pólen.
  2. Andrade, W. (2019). Entrevista à autora.
  3. Becerra, M., y Mastrini, G. (2009). Los dueños de la palabra: acceso, estructura y concentración de los medios em la América Latina del siglo XXI. Prometeo Libros.
  4. Bolaño, C. (2004). Mercado brasileiro de televisão. Aracaju, Educ.
  5. Borges, R.C.S., y Borges, R. (2012). Mídia e racismo. Petrópolis, RJ: DP et Alli; Brasília, DF: ABPN.
  6. Borges, R. C. S., & Melo, G.C. V (2019). Quando a raça e o gênero estão em questão: embates discursivos em rede social. Revista Estudos Feministas, Florianópolis, 27 (2), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9584-2019v27n254727
  7. Cabral, E. (2015). A midía no Brasil: como se dá a concentração das comunicações e telecomunicações. Revista Eptic. 17(3), 16-28.
  8. Caribé, P. (2010). Radiodifusão para o povo negro. Observatória de Imprensa.
  9. Conceição, F. (2005). Mídia e Etnicidades: no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos. Livro Pronto.
  10. Confecom (2010). Caderno 1ª Conferência Nacional de Comunicação. Observatória de Imprensa.
  11. Dos Santos, S. A. (2011). The Metamorphosis of Black Movement Activists into Black Organic Intellectuals. Latin American Perspectives, 38(3),124-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X10393696
  12. Dos Santos, S.A., Moreno, J.V., y Bertulio, D.L. (2016). The defeat of quotas within the racial equality statute. In: Jonshon, O.A.; Heringer, R. (Ed.)Race, Politics, and Education in Brazil: Affirmative Action in Higher Education. pp. 199–222
  13. Einstein, M. (2004). Media Diversity: Economics, Ownership, and the FCC. Routledge Communication Series. Federal Communications Commission. (2017). Third report on ownership of commercial broadcast stations. Retrieved on Abri 7, 2019, from https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-344821A1.pdf
  14. Fenaj. (2004). Teses e moções do 31º Congresso Nacional de Jornalistas. João Pessoa (PB). Retrieved on Abri 7, 2019, from https://fenaj.org.br/fenaj/direcao/congressos/congressos/
  15. Georgiou, M. (2020) Racism, postracialism and why media matter, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 43:13, 2379-2385, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2020.1784450
  16. Gomes, N. (2017) O movimento negro educador. Saberes construídos na luta por emancipação. Vozes.
  17. González, J; Torres, J. (2011). News for All the People: The Epic Story of Race and the American Media. Verso.
  18. Gooden,S ., Myers, S. (2018). The Kerner Commission Report Fiffty years later: Revisiting the American dream. Journal of the Social Sciences, 4(6), 1-17 https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2018.4.6.01
  19. Guaraná, B. (2018). Taís Araújo: The black Helena against Brazil’s whitening television. Black Camera. Black Camera, 10 (1), 42-66. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2979/blackcamera.10.1.03
  20. Guimarães, A. S. (1995) Racismo e antirracismo no Brasil. Novos Estudos.
  21. Harrys, C. I. (1993). Whiteness as property. Harvard Law Review, 1991. P.1707-1991. Retrieved on November 2, 2018, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1341787?seq=1
  22. Hasenbalg, C.A. (1987). O negro nas vésperas do centenário. Estudos Afro-Asiáticos, Rio de Janeiro, p.79-86.
  23. Hasenbalg, C.A. (1979). Discriminação e desigualdades raciais no Brasil. Graal.
  24. Hernández, T. K. (2017). Subordinação racial no Brasil e na América Latina: o papel do Estado, o direito costumeiro e a nova resposta dos direitos civis. EdUFBA.
  25. Honing, D. (2018). How the FCC suppressed minority broadcast ownership, and how the FCC can undo the damage it caused. Southern Journal of Policy and Justice, Vol. XII
  26. IBGE (2019). Desigualdades Sociais por Cor ou Raça no Brasil. Retrieved on March 2, 2019, from https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv101681_informativo.pdf.
  27. Intervozes (2015). Análise. Concentração dos meios de comunicação de massa e o desafio da democratização da mídia no Brasil, 2015. Retrieved on November, 2018, from http://intervozes.org.br/publicacoes/concentracao-dos-meios-de-comunicacao-de-massa-e-o-desafio-dademocratizacao-da-midia-no-brasil/
  28. Jonhson, D. (2019). Print Media Is Underserved by Not Including Black-Owned Media in Ad buys. Retrieved on June 15, 2019, from https://www.adweek.com/tv-video/print-media-is-underserved-bynot-including-black-owned-media-in-ad-buys/
  29. Kerner Commission (1968). The news media and the disorders. In: Report of the Nacional Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Retrieved on April 19, 2019, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/8073NCJRS.pdf
  30. Kim, D.H. (2016) Diversity policies in the media marketplace: A review of studies of minority ownership, employment, and content. International Journal of Communication. 10, 2201–2220.
  31. Lopes, I.S. (2014). Political Culture and the democratization of communications in Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 41(5), pp. 129–140. doi.org/10.1177/0094582X14544111
  32. Lopes, I.S, Melo, P.V. (2020). Raça e Racismo nos estudos em Economia Política da Comunicação: da resistência à construção de uma agenda de pesquisa. Revista Epticc. 22 (3), 122-138.
  33. Mills, C. (1997). The Racial Contract. Cornell University Pres
  34. Moraes, D. (2013). Agências alternativas em redes e democratização da informação na América Latina. In: Moraes, D; Ramonet, I.; Serrano, P. (Eds.) Mídia, Poder e contrapoder: da concentração monopólica à democratização da informação. Faperj, pp. 103-144.
  35. Pieranti, O. Confecom, 10 anos depois: um debate necessário sobre a implementação das propostas aprovadas. Revista Chasqui. N.141, agosto-noviembre, pp.275-288. https://revistachasqui.org/index.php/chasqui/article/view/3837/3229
  36. Pinto, A.F.M. (2010). Imprensa negra no Brasil do século XIX. Selo Negro.
  37. Queiroga, W. (2019). Entrevista à autora.
  38. Rascke, K.L. (2018). Black press and fight against racism. (Florianópolis, 1914-1925). En Tempo & Argumento, 10(25), 38-65. https://doi.org/10.5965/2175180310252018038
  39. Robinson, B. S. (1979). Achieving Diversity in Media Ownership: Bakke and the FCC, 67 Calif. L. Rev. 231.
  40. RSF. (2017). Quem Controla a Mídia no Brasil? Retrieved on March 20, 2019, from http://brazil.mom-rsf.org/br/
  41. Sanders, J. (2015). How racism and sexism killed traditional media: why the future of journalism depends on women and people of color. Praeger, Santa Barbara.
  42. Santos, S. A. (2014) Educação. Um pensamento negro contemporâneo. Paco Editorial.
  43. Santos, S.A., Santos, J.V.M., y Bertulio, D.L. (2011). O processo de aprovação do Estatuto da Igualdade Racial. INESC.
  44. Santos, S. (2016). E-Sucupira: o Coronelismo Eletrônico como herança do Coronelismo nas comunicações brasileiras. E-Compós, v7. Retrieved on June 10, 2019, from https://www.e-compos.org.br/ecompos/article/view/104
  45. Santos, T. V. (2018). Desigualdade racial midiática. O direito à comunicação exercido e o direito à imagem violado. Letramento.
  46. Silva, S. M. (2015). Por uma visibilidade étnica: imprensa, jornalistas e identidades raciais – uma abordagem sobre a campanha nacional de autodeclaração étnicoracial. Anais I Congresso de Pesquisadores Negros do Sudeste. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BwyWMqxOKBp6N0JDS2doRWdSV00/view
  47. Vand Dijk, T. (1991). Racism in the press - Great Britain. Routledge
  48. Wilde, B. FCC (1973). Tax Certificates for Minority Ownership of Broadcast Facilities: A Critical Reexamination of Policy. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 138(3). 979-1026.
  49. Zook, K. B. (2015). Blacks own just 10 U.S. television stations. Here’s why. The Washington post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/08/17/blacks-own-just-10-u-s-televisionstations-heres-why/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.b65dcd37b5d6.
How to Cite
Da Silva Lopes, I. (2021). Black Media and Inequality in the Media Structure: Notes on Brazil and USA. Anagramas Rumbos Y Sentidos De La Comunicación, 20(39), 223-242. https://doi.org/10.22395/angr.v19n39a10

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Send mail to Author


Send Cancel

We are indexed in