Los crímenes de honor como prácticas culturales perjudiciales

Marta Szygendowska

Resumen


El artículo analiza los crímenes de honor como prácticas culturales perjudiciales cuyo reconocimiento legal urge en el sistema jurídico internacional. Son el fruto de la cultura patriarcal, ligada al concepto de honor que es encarnado por la mujer y cuya preservación depende del comportamiento femenino. A pesar de constituir abusos y violación de los derechos humanos, dichas prácticas, por ser culturales, encuentran amparo y justificación en algunos sistemas legales. La debilidad de la normativa internacional en dicha materia –siendo la Cedaw el único tratado internacional universal que se refiere a las prácticas culturales nocivas–, estimula la creación de una definición amplia de los crímenes de honor.


Palabras clave


crímenes de honor; prácticas culturales; derechos de las mujeres

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Afshari, R. (2001). Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism. Pensilvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Ali Hirsi, A. (2010). Nomad: From Islam to America: A Personal Journey Through the Clash of Civilizations. Nueva York: Free Press.

An-Na’im, A. (1992). Introduction, en An-Na’im, A. (Eds). Human Rights in a Cross Cultural Perspective: A Quest for Consensus. Filadelfia: University of Pennsylvania Press: 1-19.

An-Na’im, A. (Eds). (1992). Human Rights in a Cross Cultural Perspective: A Quest for Consensus. Filadelfia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Arnold, K. (2001). Are the perpetrators of honor killings getting away with murder? Article 340 of the Jordanian Penal Code analyzed under the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. American University International Law Review, 16, 1343-1409.

Begikhani, N. (2005). Honour-based violence among the Kurds: the case of Iraqi Kurdistan, en Welchman, L., Hossain, S., (Eds.). ‘Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence against Women. Londres: Zed Books: 209-30.

Brems, E. (1997). Enemies or Allies? Feminism and Cultural Relativism as Dissident Voices in Human Rights Discourse. Human Rights Quarterly, 19, 136-164.

Brown, C. (1999). Universal Human Rights: A Critique, en Dunne, T. y Wheeler, N., (Eds.). Human Rights in Global Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 103-27.

Bruckner, P. (2007). Enlightenment fundamentalism or racism of the anti-racists? Berlín: Let’s Talk European e. V. Disponible en http://www.signandsight.com/features/

html

Burrows, N. (1985). The 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Netherlands International Law Review, 32: 419-460.

Byrnes, A. y Freeman, M. (2012). The Impact of the Cedaw Convention: Paths to Equality. UNSW Law Research Paper, 2012-7. Disponible en: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1322671773271/Byrnes-and-Freeman-FINAL-18-May-2011-with-acknowledgements.pdf

Castetter, M., D. (2003). Taking Law into Their Own Hands: Unofficial and Illegal Sanctions by the Pakistani Tribal Councils. Indiana International and Comparative Law Review, 13, 543-578.

Chesler, P. (2009). Are Honor Killings Simply Domestic Violence? Middle East Quarterly, Spring, 61-69.

Coomaraswamy, R. (2005). Violence against women and ‘crimes of honour’, en: Welchman, L. y Hossain, S., (Eds). ‘Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence against Women. Londres: Zed Books: xi-xiv.

Cornejo Portugal, I. y Bellón Cárdenas, E. (2001). Prácticas culturales de apropiación simbólica en el centro comercial Santa Fe. Convergencia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 24, 67-86.

Council of Europe. (2009). The urgent need to combat so-called “honour crimes”. Report, Austin John. Doc. 11943.

Council of Europe. (2011). Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. Council of Europe Treaty Series n.° 210.

De Sousa Santos, B. (2002). Hacia una concepción multicultural de derechos humanos. El Otro Derecho, 28, 59-83.

Devers, N. L. y Bacon, S. (2010). Interpreting Honor Crimes: The Institutional Disregard towards Female Victims of Family Violence in the Middle East. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 3, 359-371.

Donnelly, J. (1993). International Human Rights. Colorado: Westview Press.

Donnelly, J. (2007). The Relative Universality of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 29, 281-306.

Dunne, T. y Wheeler, N., (Eds). (1999). Human Rights in Global Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Durojaye, E. (2013). ‘Woman, but not human’: widowhood practices and human rights violations in Nigeria. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 27, 176-196.

Eagleton, T. (2001). La idea de cultura. Barcelona: Paidós.

Elakkary, S., Franke, B., Shokri, D., Hartwig, S., Tsokos, M. y Püschel, K. (2014). Honor crimes: review and proposed definition. Forensic Sci Med Pathol, 10, 76-82.

European Parliament. (2015). Resolution on the EU Strategy for Equality between Women and Men Post 2015. 2014 / 2152 (INI).

European Parliament. (2016). Report on the Situation of Women Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the EU. 2015 / 2325 (INI).

Ferree, M. (2012). Varieties of Feminism: German Gender Politics in Global Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Gbotokuma, Z. (1992). Cultural identify and under-development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Voices from Africa, 4, 17-29.

Gill, A. (2009). Honour killings and the quest for justice in black and minority ethnic communities in the UK. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 20, 475–94.

Gill, K., A. y Strange, C. y Roberts, K. (Eds.). (2014). ‘Honour’ Killing and Violence. Theory, Policy and Practice. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Gómez Pellón, E. (s/f). Introducción a la antropología social y cultural. Disponible en: https://ocw.unican.es/mod/page/view.php?id=778

Grieff, S. (2010). No Justice in Justifications: Violence against Women in the Name of Culture, Religion and Tradition. The Global Campaign to Stop Killling and Stoning Women Living Under Muslim Laws. Disponible en: http://www.wluml.org/sites/wluml.org/files/SKSW%20Pol icy%20Br ief ing%20Ser ies%201 _No%20Justice%20in%20Justifications _Greiff.pdf

Griswold, E. (2001, 26 de febrero). Honor Killings vs. Islam. Faith of her Fathers. The New Republic, 13-15.

Holmaat, R. (2004). Towards Different Law and Public Policy: The Significance of Article 5a Cedaw for the Elimination of Structural Gender Discrimination. La Haya: Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid.

Hsiung, J., C. (Eds). (1995). Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective. Nueva York: Paragon House Publishers.

Human Rights Watch. (2001). Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence against Women and “Honor” Crimes. Intervention Before the 57th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights. Génova. Disponible en: https://www.hrw.org/news/2001/04/05/item-12-integration-human-rights-women-and-genderperspective-violence-against-women

Hunt, L. (2009). La invención de los derechos humanos. Historia. Barcelona: Tusquets Editores.

Husseini, R. (2012). Murder in the Name of Honour. The True Story of One Woman’s Heroic Fight against an Unbelievable Crime. Oxford: One World.

Jafri, A., J. (2008). Honour Killing: Dilemma, Ritual, Understanding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, A. (2009, enero). “Honour” Killings and Blood Feuds. Gendercide Watch, n.˚ 20. Disponible en: http://www.gendercide.org/case _ honour.html

Jordanian Penal Code, n.˚ 16,1966. Disponible en: https://docuri.com/download/jordan-penalcode-1960 _ 59c1d053f581710b2864418c _pdf

Juste Ruiz, J., Castillo Daudí, M. y Bou Franch, V. (2011). Lecciones de derecho internacional público. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch.

Kambarami, M. (2006). Feminity, Sexuality and Culture: Patriarchy and Female Subordination in Zimbabwe. Sudáfrica: University of Fort Hare.

Keyhani, N. (2013). Honour Crimes as Gender-Based Violence in the UK: A Critical Assessment. UCL Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 2, 255-77.

Kirti, A., Kumar, P. y Yadav, R. (2011). The Face of Honour Based Crimes: Global Concerns and Solutions. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 6, 343-357.

Kottak, C. (2011). Antropología cultural. México: McGraw-Hill.

Laporta San Miguel, F. (1987). Sobre el concepto de derechos humanos. Doxa, 4, 23-46.

Maluleke, M., J. (2012). Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 15 (1). Disponible en http://www.saflii.org/za/journals/PER/2012/1.pdf

Manwoo, L. (1985). North Korea and the Western Notion of Human Rights, en: Hsiung, J., C. (Eds). Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective. Nueva York: Paragon House Publishers: 129-51.

Mitchell, G. D. (1979). A New Dictionary of Sociology. Londres: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Mountis, G., E. (1996). Cultural Relativity and Universalism: Reevaluating Gender Rights in a Multicultural Context. Dickinson Journal of International Law, 15, 113-150.

Naciones Unidas (1979). Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer (Cedaw). Serie de Tratados de las Naciones Unidas, vol. 1249. Disponible en: http://www.ohchr.org/SP/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/Cedaw.aspx

Naciones Unidas. (1948). Declaración universal de los derechos humanos. 217 A (III). Disponible en: http://www.un.org/es/universal-declarationhuman-rights/

Naciones Unidas. (1966). El pacto internacional de derechos civiles y políticos. Serie de Tratados de las Naciones Unidas, vol. 999. Disponible en: http://www.ohchr.org/SP/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx

Naciones Unidas. (1989). Convención sobre los derechos del niño. Serie de Tratados de las Naciones Unidas, vol. 1577. Disponible en: http://www.ohchr.org/SP/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx

Naciones Unidas. (2006). Informe del secretario general de la ONU. Estudio a fondo sobre todas las formas de violencia contra la mujer. A / 61 / 122 / Add.1. Disponible en: http://www.un.org/es/comun/docs/?symbol=A/61/122/Add.1

Nadeem, A., H. (2002). Pakistan: The Political Economy of Lawlessness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nyamu, C. (2000). How Should Human Rights and Development Respond to Cultural Legitimization of Gender Hierarchy in Developing Countries? Harvard International Law Journal, 41, 381-418.

OEA. (1994). Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women (“Convention of Belem do Para”). Belem do Pará, Brasil. Disponible en: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38b1c.html

Onal, A. (2008). Honour Killings: stories of man who killed. Londres: Saqi Books.

Parlamento Europeo. (2001). Resolución sobre las mutilaciones genitales femeninas. 2001 / 2035 (INI). Disponible en: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P5-TA-2001-0476+0+DOC+XML+V0//ES

Parlamento Europeo. (2009). Resolución sobre la lucha contra la mutilación genital femenina practicada en la UE. 2008 / 2071 (INI). Disponible en: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2009-0161+0+DOC+XML+V0//ES

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. (2001). Resolution 1247 on Female Genital Mutilation. Disponible en: http://www.assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=16914〈=en

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. (2003). Resolution 1327 on so-called “Honour Crimes”. Disponible en: http://assembly.

coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-EN.asp?fileid=17106〈=en

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. (2009). Resolution 1881 on Urgent Need to Combat so-called “Honour Crimes”. Disponible en: http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTMLEN.asp?fileid=17767〈=en

Pateman, C. (1995). El contrato sexual. México: Anthropos-UAM.

Pitt-Rivers, J. (1966). Honour and Social Status, en: Peristiany, J., G. (Eds.). Honour and Shame. The Values of Mediterranean Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 21-77.

Peces-Barba Martínez, G. (1994). La universalidad de los derechos humanos. Doxa, 15-16, 613-633.

Peristiany, J., G. (Eds). (1996). Honour and Shame. The Values of Mediterranean Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Perlmutter, D. (2011). The Semiotics of Honor Killings and Ritual Murder. Anthropoetics: The Journal of Generative Anthropology, (1). Disponible en http://anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap1701/1701perlmutter/

Postigo Asenjo, M. (2001). El patriarcado y la estructura social de la vida cotidiana. Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía, 6, 199-208.

Rachels, J. (2003). The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Birmingham: University of Alabama.

Raday, F. (2007). Culture, Religion, and Cedaw’s Article 5 (a), en: Schöpp-Schiling, H., Flinterman, C., (Eds). The Circle of Empowerment: Twenty-five Years of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Nueva York: Feminist Press: 68-85.

Ramcharan, B. G. (1998). A Debate about Power Rather than Rights. IPG, n.˚ 4. Disponible en: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/ipg/ipg-1998-4/debate.pdf

Reddy, R. (2008). Gender, Culture and Law: Approaches to ‘Honour Crimes’ in the UK. Feminist Legal Studies, 16, 305-321.

Reddy, R. (2014). Domestic Violence or Cultural Tradition? Approaches to ‘Honour Killing’ as Species and Subspecies in English Legal Practice, en Gill, K., A. y Strange, C., Roberts, K. (Eds). ‘Honour’ Killing and Violence. Theory, Policy and Practice. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan UK: 27-45.

Ross, S., D. (2008). Women’s Human Rights: The international and Comparative Law Casebook. Filadelfia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Ruda, J. M. (2010). La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas. Organización y procedimiento. Revista sobre Enseñanza del Derecho, 16, 205-214.

Schöpp-Schiling, H. y Flinterman, C., (Eds). (2007). The Circle of Empowerment: Twentyfive Years of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Nueva York: Feminist Press.

Sen, P. (2005). ’Crimes of honour’, value and meaning, en: Welchman, L., Hossain, S., (Eds). ‘Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence against Women. Londres: Zed Books: 2-63.

Sepper, E. (2008). Confronting the Sacred and Unchangeable: The Obligation to Modify Cultural Patterns under the Women’s Discrimination. Journal of International Law, 30, 585-639.

Siddiqui, H. (2005).’There is no ‘honour’ in domestic violence, only shame!’ Women’s struggles against ‘honour’ crimes in the UK, en Welchman, L., Hossain, S., (Eds). ‘Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence against Women. Londres: Zed Book: 263-281.

Sorokin, P. (1957). Social and Cultural Dynamics. Boston: Porter Sargent Publisher.

Terry, G. (2007). Women’s Rights. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan. The Advocates for Human Rights. (2008). Crimes committed in the name of “honour”. Disponible en http://www.stopvaw.org/honor _ killings.html

Thompson, J. B. (1993). Ideología y cultura moderna. México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.

Thompson, J. B. (2002). Ideología y cultura moderna. Teoría crítica social en la era de la comunicación de masas. México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.

UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. (1990). Cedaw General Recommendation n.° 14: Female Circumcision. A/45/38. Disponible en: http://www.refworld.org/docid/453882a30.html

UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. (1992). Cedaw General Recommendation n.° 19: Violence against women. A/47/38. Disponible en: http://www.refworld.org/docid/52d920c54.html

UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and UN Committee on Rights of the Child. (2014). Joint General Recommendation/General Comment n.° 31: Harmful practices. Cedaw/C/GC/31/CRC/C/GC/18. Disponible en: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/ _ layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?SymbolNo=CEDAW/C/GC/31/CRC/C/GC/18

UN Commission on Human Rights. (1994). Preliminary report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/45. E/CN.4/1995/42. Disponible en: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G94/148/72/PDF/G9414872.pdf?OpenElement

UN Commission on Human Rights. (1999). Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Radhika Coomaraswamy. E/CN.4/1999/68/Add.3. Disponible en: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b0fb4.html

UN Commission on Human Rights. (2002). Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2001/49: Cultural practices in the family that are violent towards women. E/CN.4/2002/83. Disponible en: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3d6ce3cc0.html

UN General Assembly. (1993). Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. A/CONF.157/23. Disponible en: http://www.un-documents.net/ac157-23.htm

UN General Assembly. (1998). Traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly. A/RES/52/99. Disponible en: http://repository.un.org/handle/11176/177362

UN General Assembly. (1999). Traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls. A/RES/53/117. Disponible en: http://repository.un.org/handle/11176/222101

UN General Assembly. (2001). Working towards the elimination of crimes against women committed in the name of honour. A/RES/55/66. Disponible en: http://dag.un.org/handle/11176/152311

UN General Assembly. (2003). Working towards the elimination of crimes against women committed in the name of honour. A/RES/57/179. Disponible en: http://dag.un.org/handle/11176/167788

UN Human Rights Council. (2012). Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo. A/HRC/20/16. Disponible en: http://www.

ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Women/A.HRC.20.16 _ En.pdf

UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1995a). Fact Sheet N.° 22, Discrimination against Women: The Convention and the Committee. Disponible en: http://www.refworld.org/docid/47947740d.html

UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1995b). Fact Sheet N.° 23, Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Disponible en: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet23en.pdf

UN Women. (s/f). Defining “honour” crimes and “honour” killings. Disponible en http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/731-defininghonourcrimes-and-honour-killings.html

Welchman, L., Hossain, S. (2005). ’Honour’, rights and wrongs, en: Welchman, L., Hossain, S., (Eds). ‘Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence against Women. Londres: Zed Books: 1-21.

Welchman, L., Hossain, S. (2005). Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence against Women. Londres: Zed Books.

Wikan, U. (2008). In Honor of Fadime: Murder and shame. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22395/ojum.v16n32a2

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


 

Creative Commons License
Este trabajo esta licenciado bajo una Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2014 Sello Editorial. Universidad de Medellín.

 

 

Indexada en: